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Hot Rolled vs Cold Rolled Steel

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Hot Rolled vs Cold Rolled Steel
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钢有多种等级、规格、形状和表面处理——世界钢铁协会列出了3500多种不同等级的钢,每种钢都具有独特的性能。钢的种类繁多,这意味着钢可以广泛用于基础设施、电器、车辆、风力涡轮机和更多的应用领域。

 

Steel comes in many grades, specifications, shapes, and finishes—the World Steel Association lists over 3,500 different grades of steel, each with unique properties. The various types mean that steel can by widely used in infrastructure, appliances, vehicles, wind turbines, and many more applications.

 

然而,针对每种应用优化钢的性能不仅仅是改变化学成分。钢材的制造工艺也会对钢材产品产生重大影响——即使等级和规格相同。预制钢产品之间的主要区别之一是热轧钢和冷轧钢之间的区别。

 

Optimizing steel’s properties for each application goes beyond changing the chemical composition, however. The manufacturing processing of steel can also have a significant impact on steel products—even when the grades and specifications are the same. One key distinction among pre-fabricated steel products is the difference between hot rolled and cold rolled steel.

热轧钢和冷轧钢的主要区别在于工艺。“热轧”是指加热加工,“冷轧”是指在室温或接近室温下进行的工艺。尽管这些技术会影响整体性能和应用,但不应将它们与冶金成分和性能等级相关的钢的正式规格和等级混淆。不同等级和规格的钢可以是热轧或冷轧的——包括基本碳钢和其他合金钢。知道该用哪一种可以帮助避免在原材料上花费过多。它还可以节省额外处理的时间和金钱。了解冷热钢之间的区别对于选择一种钢材是必不可少的。
 
It’s important to note that the main difference between hot rolled and cold rolled steel is one of process. “Hot rolling” refers to processing done with heat. “Cold rolling” refers to processes done at or near room temperature. Although these techniques affect overall performance and application, they should not be confused with formal specifications and grades of steel, which relate to metallurgical composition and performance ratings. Steels of different grades and specifications can be either hot rolled or cold rolled—including both basic carbon steels and other alloy steels. Knowing which to use can help avoid over-spending on raw materials. It can also save time and money on additional processing. Understanding the differences between hot and cold steel is integral to choosing one over the other.

热轧钢Hot rolled steel

 

热轧钢是在1700˚F以上的极高温度下进行辊压的钢,这高于大多数钢的再结晶温度。这使得钢更容易成型,从而生产出更容易加工的产品。

 

为了加工热轧钢,制造商首先从一种称为钢坯的大矩形金属开始。钢坯被加热,然后送去进行预处理,在那里它被压扁成一个大卷。它被保持在高温下,并通过一系列辊子以达到其最终尺寸。白热的钢绞线被高速推过辊子。对于金属板材,轧钢被旋制成卷并冷却。对于其他形式,如棒材或板材,材料是分段包装的。

 

钢在冷却时会略微收缩。由于热轧钢在加工后冷却,对其最终形状的控制较少,因此不太适合精密应用。热轧钢通常用于对详细尺寸要求不太精确的应用。铁轨和建筑项目通常使用热轧钢材。

 

Hot rolled steel is steel that has been roll-pressed at very high temperatures—over 1,700˚F, which is above the re-crystallization temperature for most steels. This makes the steel easier to form, and resulting in products that are easier to work with.

To process hot rolled steel, manufacturers first start with a large, rectangular length of metal, called a billet. The billet is heated and then sent for pre-processing, where it is flattened into a large roll. From there, it is kept at a high temperature and run through a series of rollers to achieve its finished dimensions. The white-hot strands of steel are pushed through the rollers at high speeds. For sheet metal, rolled steel is spun into coils and left to cool. For other forms, such as bars or plates, materials are sectioned and packaged.

Steel shrinks slightly as it cools. Since hot rolled steel is cooled after processing, there is less control over its final shape, making it less suitable for precision applications. Hot rolled steel is often used in applications where minutely specific dimensions aren’t crucial. Railroad tracks and construction projects often use hot rolled steel.

 

热轧钢通常可以通过以下特征来识别:

有鳞的表面——来自极端温度的冷却残留物

棒材和板材产品的边缘和拐角略微圆滑(由于收缩和不太精确的精加工)

 

轻微的扭曲,冷却可能会导致轻微梯形形状,而不是完美的平方角

 

Hot rolled steel can often be identified by the following characteristics:

A scaled surface—a remnant of cooling from extreme temperatures

Slightly rounded edges and corners for bar and plate products (due to shrinkage and less precise finishing)

Slight distortions, where cooling may result in slightly trapezoidal forms, as opposed to perfectly squared angles

 

热轧钢通常比冷轧钢需要的加工少,这使得它便宜得多。因为热轧钢可以在室温下冷却,所以它基本上是正火的——这意味着它没有淬火或加工硬化过程可能产生的内应力。

 

在尺寸公差不如整体材料强度重要且表面光洁度不是关键问题的情况下,热轧钢是理想的选择。如果表面光洁度有问题,可以通过研磨、喷砂或酸洗去除结垢。

 

Hot rolled steel typically requires much less processing than cold rolled steel, which makes it a lot cheaper. Because hot rolled steel is allowed to cool at room temperature, it’s essentially normalized—meaning it’s free from internal stresses that can arise from quenching or work-hardening processes.

Hot rolled steel is ideal where dimensional tolerances aren’t as important as overall material strength, and where surface finish isn’t a key concern. Where surface finish is a concern, scaling can be removed by grinding, sand blasting, or acid-bath pickling.

冷轧钢Cold rolled steel

 

冷轧钢本质上是经过进一步加工的热轧钢。热轧钢冷却后,在室温下重新轧制,以获得更精确的尺寸和更好的表面质量。

 

Cold rolled steel is essentially hot rolled steel that has been through further processing. Once hot rolled steel has cooled, it is then re-rolled at room temperature to achieve more exact dimensions and better surface qualities.

 

冷轧钢通常可以通过以下特征来识别:

更好、更精加工的表面,公差更小

光滑的表面,通常摸起来很油腻

条形通常有明确的棱角

管材具有更好的同心均匀性和直线度

 

Cold rolled steel can often be identified by the following characteristics:

Better, more finished surfaces with closer tolerances

Smooth surfaces that are often oily to the touch

Bars are true and square, and often have well-defined edges and corners

Tubes have better concentric uniformity and straightness

 

冷轧钢具有比热轧钢更好的表面特性,因此冷轧钢用于技术上要求更精确的应用或美学很重要的应用也就不足为奇了。但由于冷成品的额外加工,它的价格更高。

 

在物理特性方面,冷轧钢通常比标准热轧钢更硬、更坚固。由于金属在较低温度下成型,钢的硬度、抗张断能力和抗变形能力都因加工硬化而增加。

 

然而,这些额外的处理也会在材料内产生内应力。如果钢材在切割、打磨或焊接之前没有消除应力,则可能会导致不可预测的翘曲。

 

With better surface characteristics than hot rolled steel, it’s no surprise that cold rolled steel is often used for more technically precise applications, or where aesthetics are important. But due to the additional processing for cold finished products, they come at a higher price.

In terms of physical characteristics, cold rolled steels are typically harder and stronger than standard hot rolled steels. As the metal is shaped at the lower temperatures, the steel’s hardness, resistance against tension breaking, and resistance against deformation are all increased due to work hardening.

These additional treatments, however, can also create internal stress within the material. This can cause unpredictable warping if the steel is not stress relieved prior to cutting, grinding, or welding.

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有关钢材的更多信息,或需要定制项目的报价,请与我们联系。

For more information on steel, or to request a quote for a custom project, please contact us.

 

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Pub Time : 2021-08-05 14:11:18 >> News list
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